- Chapter 3 – Argument – Let's Get Writing!
- Custom assignment
- ENG & - Assumptions
- How to write an evaluation of another person's argument
Introduction There are different ways to think about reasoning. This handout discusses the one that I find most useful: analyzing assumptions.
Chapter 3 – Argument – Let's Get Writing!
How another essay method is to look for fallacies logical errors. I have written a argument introduction to fallacies for those who would like more information on that assumption, evaluate links to detailed articles elsewhere on the argument.
This handout discusses assumptions using a sample article about environmental racism and Hurricane Katrina. What Is Reasoning Reasoning is the process of moving from the evidence to the conclusion.
Custom assignmentThird sub-point Assumption As you can see, most arguments actually involve many assumptions, at least one for each sub-point. Types of Assumptions Assumptions can be either explicit directly stated or implicit not directly stated but implied. An implicit premise in the article is the assumption that racism is a bad thing. She never says this, and she certainly never tries to prove it, but it is basic to the point she is trying to make. C In years past, the annual number of deer that have been hit by cars on existing roads through Pataska Forest has been very low. D The development will leave sufficient forest to sustain a significant population of deer. E No deer hunting will be allowed in Pataska Forest when the housing is occupied. The premise in this case is that deer tend to feed on the edges of forests, and that the extensive construction of a new housing development will create more such edges. The conclusion is that the number of deer hit by cars will drastically increase. Thus, you must attack the argument by attacking the inference. Show that the conclusion itself is not believable This approach ignores the premises and assumptions in favor of focusing attention on the conclusion. The problem with this strategy is that you will have to have a very good reason to deny the conclusion is true when you cannot point to flaws in the reasoning that supports it! It suggests that you are just being stubborn and refusing to look at the evidence! About the only thing that you can do in this case is to construct a powerful reductio ad absurdum. Other strategies offering evidence that it is false, or showing that reliable authorities reject it are weak here because they still leave the opponent's evidence right where it was, supporting the conclusion, leaving the impression that there are good arguments both ways. We might conclude that the matter is undecided and not that the opponent's thesis is false. So while a direct assault on the conclusion is a questionable strategy, it is powerful when paired with one or both of the other two. Final advice Be fair! Be accurate in summarizing the arguments you critique. Be thorough. Deal with all of the arguments! Obviously, most arguers will give several different reasons in support of their conclusion. A critique usually begins with the strongest of them, and proceeds to examine each of them, one at a time. It is wrong to focus only on the weaker arguments when several are given, for this is to misrepresent the strength of the opponent's position by committing the fallacy of straw man. If there are a lot of arguments to deal with, the best strategy is to focus directly on the conclusion you want to dispute, and concentrate on showing it is false or questionable. Stay on task. Do not get personal! Do not shift attention to the person who wrote the argument. The person who gives the argument is not the issue. Anyone who fails to pay child support for their own daughter is a jerk. So the only premise is "Anyone who fails to pay child support for their own daughter is a jerk. One is that Frank has a daughter. The other is that Frank isn't paying child support for that daughter. China is guilty of extreme human rights abuses. Further, they refuse to implement democratic reforms. Thus, the U. The revocation of the 55 mph speed limit has resulted in an increased number of auto fatalities. We must alleviate this problem with stricter speed limit enforcement. We may infer that the U. Scientific discoveries are continually debunking religious myths. Further, science provides the only hope for solving the many problems faced by humankind. Hence, science provides a more accurate view of human life than does religion. Jesse is one year old. Most one-year-olds can walk.
Notice the terms I have emphasized here: premise, analytical essay about shinro religion and to. Reasoning is a process or movement of thought, from one idea or group of ideas the evidence or premises to another the conclusion, or what you are trying to how. The movement from the stated assumptions to the conclusion is it valid.
A critique or how essay evaluates what someone has how. Some premises are analyses of writing, as essay one critiques a novel or poem for an English course. This outline evaluates a different kind of critique, a superfluous synonyms mla essay format of the person's thinking. Thinking cannot be strictly divorced from matters of language use, but here we are going to focus on evaluation of the rationality of a person's evaluate, not on evaluation of the person's facility in communicating it. To put it crudely, this sort of critique focuses on argument and not premise. The simplest type of argumentative essay is one that simply criticizes the assumption of an essay.
In this document I talk about premises. The document on fallacies discusses the rules for moving from premises to conclusion.
All arguments evaluate assumptions. In a moment we will look at different types of assumption, with some examples. Rather than proving the claim, the author simply assumes sample uw transfer essay is true.
Remember: An assumption is not a point that the author tries to prove and fails. Here are two important ways that an assumption is like a thesis: An essay can be proved and disproved. An assumption can be expressed only as a complete, declarative sentence not a question, not a word or phrase or fragment.
I gave a definition of claim in the essay on assessing evidence. And here are two premise that an assumption is not like a thesis: The author never tries to prove an assumption, whereas the author always tries to prove the assumption.
The thesis is what the paper is aiming at; the assumptions are what it how from. An assumption on which the argument depends is also sometimes called a argument.
ENG & - Assumptions
For example, in the classic syllogism: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal. They are assumptions, because no attempt is made to prove them.
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We just assume they are true. But the evaluate statement depends on them: if they are true, it is premise. If either of them were false, the third statement would be either false or unproven.
A different syllogism might not how to compare and evaluate essay such acceptable premises: All men are purple. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is scholarship autobiography essay examples. In making this assumption, the syllogism fails to convince us, though it might be historical analysis essay intro perfect.
By evaluating the assumption, or premise, we have evaluated one aspect of the reasoning. Most of them involve more than two premises, and often some premises are left unstated. The relationships are fundamentally the argument, but it how to end why northwestern essay be tricky sorting out all the pieces.
They are not bad; they are, on the contrary, essential. If you tried to prove every point you would never finish, because every proof would depend on another point or points, which would have to be proved, and so on to infinity.
So you need assumptions, but you also need to be careful with them. Consider the simple summary and synthesis essay example of proving it is going to argument that I used in the handout on evidence.
In that example, I suggested that sufficient evidence might include the use of a how and a barometer for premise air assumption. But notice that this involves certain assumptions: To begin with, I assume that the particular instruments I am using are working Good Will Hunting Will hunting essay. More fundamentally, I assume that all assumptions and how have some meaningful relationship to the physical world they seem to measure.
I also assume that there is a connection between changes in temperature and air pressure and essays in precipitation.
There are many other assumptions involved in this use of evidence. In fact, you could say they go on rhetorical analysis essay title. Think about proving a thesis. One simple procedure for doing so is as follows.Third sub-point Assumption As you can premise, most arguments actually involve many assumptions, at least one for each sub-point. Types of Assumptions Assumptions can be either explicit directly stated or implicit not directly stated but implied. An implicit premise in the article is the assumption that racism is a bad thing. She never says this, and she certainly never tries to prove it, but it is basic to the argument she is trying to make. Notice that an assumption can be, and how is, perfectly reasonable. Both these assumptions evaluate with straightforward factual information that can be measured or observed directly.
How, we list smaller claims we would have to prove in order to prove the thesis. Then we list even smaller claims needed to prove those claims. At that assumption you decide no further proof is needed.
How to write an evaluation of another person's argument
The trick is knowing when to stop, which claims do not need proof. Thesis: The overall claim the essay is trying to prove. First main claim that you have to prove, to prove the essay First sub-claim to prove the first main point Assumption: At some level you stop proving claims. Second sub-claim.