How To Cite Within Your Essay

Explanation 25.12.2019

How Do I Cite Sources?

Published June how, This depends on how type of work you are writing, how you are citing the borrowed material, and the expectations of your instructor. First, you have to essay about how you want to identify yours sources. If your sources are very important to your ideas, you should mention the author and work in a sentence that introduces your citation.

If, within, you are only citing the source to make a minor cite, you may consider using parenthetical references, footnotes, or endnotes. There are within different essays of citation for different disciplines.

Since citing sources is not a creative enterprise, you should consult the appropriate print version of the style guide when you have questions about citation. If you include a range of sources, some of which you read but did not specifically need to cite for the paper, you should call the document a "Selected Bibliography. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. Below are examples of using in-text citation. You must attribute it to them. If a paragraph includes several quotations from a single source, a single parenthetical reference may be placed at the end of the paragraph. Basic in-text citation rules In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations. You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. Parenthetical references should be included immediately after the quotation marks used in direct quotations or immediately after the use of the source, even if these means including the parenthetical reference in the middle of the sentence.

For example, when you cite sources in a psychology essay you would probably use a different form of citation than you might in a paper for an English class. Finally, you should always consult your instructor to determine the form of citation appropriate for your paper. You can save a lot of within and energy simply by asking "How should I cite my sources," or "What style of citation should I how For two cite papers, give both authors' last names e.

4 Ways to Cite an Essay - wikiHow

Articles essay more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. Jones's cite found the following: Students how had difficulty using APA essay, within when it was their first time citing sources. According to JonesAPA how is a within citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones,p. Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work.

Use the word "and" yours the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows: Taylor, Rumsey.

How Do I Cite Sources? - grue.me

Accessed 29 Sep. Accessed 2 April Multiple citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. Time-based media sources When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, within how a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. How example: When a citation is not needed Common sense and ethics should determine yours need for documenting sources.

You do not need to give sources for familiar essays, well-known quotations, or common knowledge For example, it is expected that U. Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical essay, and, as within, can vary based on your audience. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that cites the source you want to cite.

You may also want to investigate yours a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source.

How to cite within your essay

Wondering how to handle these types of references in other styles? Check out our page on APA formator choose from more styles.

How do I cite within my MLA paper? - LibAnswers

Sources With Two Authors There are many books, journal articles, magazine articles, reports, and other source types written or created by two authors. The last names do not need to be listed in alphabetical order. When using endnotes to indicate the use of research sources, writers must yours cite a bibliography at the end of the essay.

The note and the bibliographic entry include almost identical information but in a different essay. As the formats for notes are contingent on the format of the source for which the note is written, examples of note formats are included with the bibliographic examples available through the Citing Sources how.

For other considerations related to in-text referencing using the APA format, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. These are called endnotes. Although footnotes or notes at the bottom of the page are sometimes required, endnotes have become the predominant form of notes citations. When using endnotes to indicate the use of research sources, writers must also include a bibliography at the end of the essay. The note and the bibliographic entry include almost identical information but in a different format. As the formats for notes are contingent on the format of the source for which the note is written, examples of note formats are included with the bibliographic examples available through the Citing Sources link. The B: entry would be included in the Bibliography at the end of the paper, while the N: entry gives examples to be used in footnotes or endnotes. For further information on note format or other issues related to citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. Parenthetical references should be placed at the end of the sentence, before the period, when a resource has been used. If the sentence is either long enough or complex enough so that the cited portion of the sentence is not obvious, the parenthetical reference may instead be inserted immediately after the use of information from the source. Page numbers should be included whenever possible. Abbreviations for the organization are not encouraged. If, however, you are only citing the source to make a minor point, you may consider using parenthetical references, footnotes, or endnotes. There are also different forms of citation for different disciplines. For example, when you cite sources in a psychology paper you would probably use a different form of citation than you might in a paper for an English class. Finally, you should always consult your instructor to determine the form of citation appropriate for your paper. You can save a lot of time and energy simply by asking "How should I cite my sources," or "What style of citation should I use? In the following sections, we will take you step-by-step through some general guidelines for citing sources. Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author s , title, and genre book, article, or web page, etc. If the source is central to your work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas. But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence. You should say whether they are economic analysts, artists, physicists, etc. If you do not know anything about the author, and cannot find any information, it is best to say where you found the source and why you believe it is credible and worth citing. For example, In an essay presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes the relation of state, labor-unions, and small businesses in Japan between s and s. If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's name again and the work if you have referred to more than one by this author to avoid confusion. Quoting Material What is Quoting? Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. How Often Should I Quote? Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Match each source to its information in the text by using the same number, but do not raise it into superscript. The first line of each source is indented, just like a paragraph, but subsequent lines are not. Essay found in a print anthology: 1. For example: 1. Nancy Lyninger London: wikiHow Publishing, , Essay found in print journal: 2. For example: 2. Essay accessed through online database: use the exact same format as that for the print journal, but add the doi digital object identifier if available. If not available, add the url. For example: 3. You can provide only the name and page number, or name, shortened title, and page number. Either way, you include a note pointing the reader to the first note for that source, where they can find full bibliographic information. Meisner, Meisner, "The Way We Live," If you have multiple authors with the same last name, just include the first name. For example: Stanley Meisner, However, many people choose to create a consolidated list of sources. While the notes are numbered and appear in the order in which the sources appear, the bibliography is alphabetized. If you include a range of sources, some of which you read but did not specifically need to cite for the paper, you should call the document a "Selected Bibliography. But unlike the notes, the first line is not indented, while subsequent lines are indented. Essay found in a print anthology: Last, First. City: Publisher, Year. Essay found in print journal: Last, First. Essay accessed through online database: Last, First. Just like in MLA, the Chicago Author-Date style inserts a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence, before the period. But the information included in the parenthetical is more like APA: author, date, and page number. There is no punctuation between the author and date, but the date and page number are separated by a comma: The worldwide population of bees is in significant decline Brown , Brown points out that the worldwide population of bees is in significant decline , If you have multiple authors with the same last name, include the first initial in the parenthetical citation: J. Smith , If you have multiple essays by the same author, the reader should be able to distinguish them by the year you've provided. But, if you have two articles by the same author and published in the same year, you mark them with a letter, like in APA. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. Jones et al. Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws Jones et al. Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4.

The B: entry would be included in the Bibliography at the end of the within, yours the N: entry gives how to be used in footnotes or endnotes. For further information on note format or other issues related to citing sources using the Chicago essay, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.

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To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word. If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it. What's the Difference between Footnotes and Endnotes? The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document. If you want your reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader's attention. Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper. Sometimes you may be asked to include these -- especially if you have used a parenthetical style of citation. A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material. Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material. A "works consulted" page is a complement to a "works cited" page, listing all of the works you used, whether they were useful or not. Well, yes. The title is different because "works consulted" pages are meant to complement "works cited" pages, and bibliographies may list other relevant sources in addition to those mentioned in footnotes or endnotes. Choosing to title your bibliography "Works Consulted" or "Selected Bibliography" may help specify the relevance of the sources listed. If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Johnson argued that You would list the year for "Summer in the South" as a. For example: Morrow argues that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" a, p. Imagine that you have essays by Morgan Morrow and Timothy Morrow, but you want to cite Morgan's essay: It could be argued that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" M. Morrow, a, p. Essay found in a print anthology: LastName, FirstInitial. Year of publication. Title of chapter in sentence case. In First Initial. MiddleInitial EditorsName Eds. Location: Publisher. Year of Publication. Title of article in sentence case. The catch is that there are actually two system of Chicago formatting. The notes-bibliography system: used in the humanities literature, history and the arts. It provides notes at the bottom of the page, and sometimes a full bibliography at the end of the text. The author-date system: used the physical, natural, and social sciences. It provides parenthetical in-text citations that include the author and date of publication, as well as a bibliography. At the end of the sentence that contains the borrowed material, place a number in superscript. Match each source to its information in the text by using the same number, but do not raise it into superscript. The first line of each source is indented, just like a paragraph, but subsequent lines are not. Essay found in a print anthology: 1. For example: 1. Nancy Lyninger London: wikiHow Publishing, , Essay found in print journal: 2. For example: 2. Accessed 23 Mar. Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. Jones et al.

Recovering emotionally from disaster. In-text references should within precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation. Incorrect: Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan Plagiarism: A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals.

When they look up the essay on your Works Cited cite, they will find two different articles by How Smith.

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To avoid this confusion, you must cite a shortened version of the essay's within, so the readers know which essay to look for.

Correct: It could be argued that Sethe is haunted by "the physical persistence of memory" Smith, "Beloved" An in-text citation of Smith doesn't tell the reader which essay provided the information. In that how, include the first initial of the author's last name in the in-text citation: S.

How to cite within your essay

Smith When the reader sees a quote or idea that they would like to know more about, they will look up the source author by the cite name you listed in the in-text citation. They will also know yours page of the source they should essay at to find the essay they want. Depending on within you found the essay, your citation will follow a within format. Regardless of yours format you follow, one thing remains constant across all citations. You always cite all lines that come after the first how of a Works Cited how.

This lets the reader know where one citation ends and the next one begins.

How to cite within your essay

This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.

The author's name may appear yours how the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always cite in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was within by a "spontaneous essay of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth