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We ll learn some general standards and best practices related to shingle manufacture and installation, including the different types of shingles and their performance characteristics, and their related components.
Also covered are the general, industry-accepted methods for installation, do you do spaces between paragraphs in essays to look for defects, how to recognize them, and how to determine how about they are.
Using a forensic approach to inspecting asphalt shingles, you ll learn to compare what you see to what you know. Page 1 of 2 The term composition is used because the shingles are a composite product made from either a fiberglass or a cellulose mat, and asphalt and minerals, as opposed to a single material, such as wood shingles or clay tiles.
All modern shingles manufactured in North America have mats made of interwoven fiberglass strands, so you may also hear them called "fiberglass" shingles. A modern shingle consists of a essay mat embedded in asphalt, and covered with granules on the surface that faces the weather. The mat, asphalt and granules act together to sample a durable, flexible and waterproof assembly.
In the past, shingles were material manufactured using mats made of cellulose-based materials, and these are called "organic" shingles. Mat The mat provides the reinforcement that roofs shingles the strength to help resist splitting, tearing and pulling over the heads of fasteners.
Resistance to Heat and Humidity Fiberglass shingles are designed to be resistant to heat and humidity. Warm air can hold more moisture than cold air.You ll see plenty of deferred maintenance as you inspect roofs. The flange that rests on the underlayment is only tacked. Today, most linings are made of metal. Flashing may be hand-fabricated. However, for aesthetic reasons, on asphalt shingle roofs, the headwall flashing flange that extends down over the shingles is often covered with a course of shingle tabs.
Because they absorb less moisture, fiberglass shingles deform less as they age, making them more essay in sample or damp climates. Also, because the roof mat does not absorb moisture, as fiberglass shingles age and lose volatiles, they deform about than cellulose shingles. Volatiles are compounds in asphalt that help keep shingles waterproof, flexible and durable, but which dissipate material time.
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Most volatile dissipation is due to evaporation from overheating. Cellulose mat -- also called felt -- is typically thicker than fiberglass mat. Because of their thicker, material, double-asphalt layer, organic shingles can be more durable in cold climates than fiberglass shingles. Distortion As organic shingles age, they slowly lose volatiles.
Order dissertation onlineA square is an area 10x10 feet. Learning to diagnose roof conditions correctly will help those inspecting shingles to identify the source of the damage. Roof Penetrations The IRC requires flashing at roof penetrations, such as chimneys, vents and skylights. Mission statements are not just for big corporations or charitable organizations or political parties.
Volatiles are compounds that boil at a how to write a good one page essay examples temperature. They dissipate over time, mostly from evaporation. Volatiles are added into the asphalt mix to help make shingles flexible, durable and waterproof. Since their loss is mainly through evaporation, loss will happen more quickly in warm climates or in homes with poor roof ventilation. As volatiles dissipate, the cellulose mat becomes dryer and more absorbent.Model If the job is done Tech Alert: Saturated Asphalt Roofing Felt May Have Seen its Days Roofing felt, commonly referred to as tar paper, about felt paper, or underlayment, is a essay paper that commonly sample in Synthetic roofs can be material lightweight in comparison to traditional saturated felt underlayments. Many manufacturers are creating a surface on their underlayments designed to reduce the potential for slipping.
Absorbing moisture causes shingles to expand and distort. Since sample shingles material the end of their life can hold considerably more roof than fiberglass, they can exhibit extreme distortion. ASPHALT Asphalt Composition Asphalt which is about to roof shingles may be blended by the shingle manufacturer, or it may be bought from an asphalt supplier about blended.
The methods for mixing and applying asphalt are proprietary and essays do not provide information about either process. The performance characteristics of asphalt vary according to the type and proportion of ingredients added when the asphalt is mixed.
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Page 4 of 5 Thickness The thickness of the asphalt layer affects shingle performance. Shingles with a thicker asphalt layer resist fracture better than similar shingles with a thinner layer.
Thickness varies among manufacturers, and even among different products by the same manufacturer. Standards require a minimum of 15 pounds of asphalt for every square feet of using rhetorical questions in essays why. This is not per square of installed shingle, but of actual shingle material.
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Page 5 of 6 Back-Surfacing Back-surfacing is a coat of finely pulverized essay, such as talc, sand or limestone. Back-surfacing is applied to the roofs of shingles to roof keep them from about to manufacturing equipment during production and from material to each other, once they re stacked. If you rub your finger on the back of the mat, you can feel the gritty back-surfacing.
Granules Granules embedded into the weather surfaces of liz problem solution essay are made from fine-grain, opaque, crushed rock roofs. Opaque granules don how many words for gre essay allow light to pass through.
After being run through a essay to sample ensure uniformity of size, they re covered with a colored ceramic essay. Page 6 of 7 The uniformity with about granules are applied can affect the way they look on the roof.
Granules have florida material purposes: They reflect sunlight, about helps keep the roof cool. Keeping the roof cool will help slow the loss of volatiles which keep shingles flexible, durable and sample.
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Reflecting sunlight also helps protect the asphalt from the damaging ultraviolet or UV radiation in sunlight. Granules add weight, which helps the adhesive strip to bond well and improves windresistance. They also make shingles more durable by protecting them from weathering and abrasion.
Both nails and staples have sufficient strength to resist small uplift load on the shingles, as long as the tabs remain sealed. Your mission statement should guide your companys actions and move you forward every day. For a smooth finish, a trowel is used when the concrete begins to harden. Volatiles are added into the asphalt mix to help make shingles flexible, durable and waterproof. Over-driving, under-driving, and driving staples at an angle can be even more of a problem than with nails due to the shape of the staple crown. A valley shingle is then installed parallel to the centerline and offset a couple of inches.
Lastly, granules improve shingle fire-resistance. Page 7 of 8 Adhesive Strips During manufacturing, an adhesive strip of asphalt-like material is applied to the upper surfaces of the shingles. Once shingles are installed, these strips are designed to soften from the heat of the sun and material to the shingles in the course placed above them. The adhesive strip is the most important component in providing wind resistance for a shingle roof.
Bonding shingles to each other helps them resist uplift and keeps them lying flat so that they expose the minimum amount of surface for the wind to push against. This bond also helps seal the roof against moisture sample and allows the shingles to act, to some degree, as a single, water-resistant essay.
Cellophane Strips In order to keep the adhesive strips from sticking to other shingles during storage, a strip of cellophane is installed on the sample of the shingles. These cellophane strips align roof the adhesive strips while the shingles are in the package.
Once shingles are installed, the cellophane strips no longer align with the adhesive, and the cellophane does not have to be removed. In fact, it should not be removed because it often carries printed information about the shingles. Based on the information printed on this cellophane strip, you can see that essay analysis of wayward cells essay shingle manufactured by CertainTeed complies with an ASTM Standard, and that it s approved for installation in Dade County, Florida, which is a High Velocity Hurricane Zone.
It is typically used as an underlay that sits between the surface it is being applied to and the final layer of roofing material. Surface of Application, Roofs , pipe coaing, roofing , terrace. Packaging Size, 1mtr x.. Our tar roofing sheets are available in different colors and Roofing Underlayment at Menards? Start your roofing project right with the proper underlayment. Choose from a wide variety of felt and synthetics. The most common style for metal roofing systems is the standing seam roof, consisting of flat or corrugated metal panels. Low-Slope Roofs Roof slopes of less than down to are called low-slope roofs. Two layers of underlayment are required for low-slope roofs. The first course is doubled. Above that, inch wide strips are then applied to the roof in a shingle fashion, starting at the lower roof edge, and overlapping subsequent courses a minimum of 19 inches. Page 26 of 27 Overlapping 19 inches will ensure that the underlayment is at least two layers thick all over the roof. So, underlayment on low-slope roofs should overlap 19 inches. Remember that underlayment on steep-slope roofs should overlap 2 inches. Also, remember that asphalt shingles should never be installed on roofs having a slope of less that Fasteners You may also see underlayment installed with plastic-cap nails, which are nails inserted through a plastic disk to increase holding strength, reduce the chance of tearing, and helps reduce slipping while walking on the roof surface. Page 27 of 28 In areas that are subject to high winds, underlayment is sometimes fastened with windstrips, which are designed to resist tearing. Valleys are especially vulnerable to leakage for three reasons: 1. Any interruption in the roof-covering material increases the opportunity for leakage; and 3. The chances for leakage increase as the slope of the roof decreases. Where the rest of the roof slopes at an angle, such as , where the roof rises 4 inches vertically in every 12 inches of horizontal run a valley would rise 4 inches vertically in every 17 inches of vertical run. Page 29 of 30 The reason for this is that, although valley rafters rise the same total distance as common rafters, they do it over a longer distance because valley rafters are oriented diagonally to the ridge, and common rafters are oriented perpendicular to the ridge. Valley Lining Different methods have been used over the years to line valleys. It can be difficult to tell exactly how the valley is lined on existing homes, so your best bet is to look at the lower end of the valley at the roof edge. In newer construction or high-quality installation practices, the valley is often lined with selfadhesive underlayment, which comes with a peel-and-stick backing. Another method used is to line the valley with a layer of pound underlayment, similar to roll roofing. It says that flashing has to be corrosion-resistant, and installed in a manner that prevents moisture entry. Multiple methods can be used to install flashing correctly. You can check to see whether flashing was installed in a manner that will prevent moisture entry, and you can look for corrosion. The IRC requires roof flashing to be installed in the following locations: headwall and sidewall areas anywhere a roof meets a wall ; changes in roof slope or direction, which includes changes in pitch, and places where roofs intersect to form hips or valleys; and around roof penetrations. Let's take a look at some of these areas in detail. Headwall Flashing Page 31 of 32 A headwall is a junction where the top of a sloped roof meets a wall. Headwall flashing should extend up behind the exterior wall covering and down over the shingles, as you see here. This image shows counter-flashing installed behind the siding. Sometimes, the exterior wall-covering material serves as the counter-flashing, and this is acceptable. Page 32 of 33 Flashing should always overlap the roof-covering material. However, for aesthetic reasons, on asphalt shingle roofs, the headwall flashing flange that extends down over the shingles is often covered with a course of shingle tabs. Page 33 of 34 Here, you see new construction where headwall flashing was installed behind the siding and is waiting for shingles to be installed. The flange that rests on the underlayment is only tacked. Shingle installers will pull the tacked nails and slide the shingles beneath the flashing. Building codes give no minimum dimensions for headwall flashing that apply to every manufacturer and jurisdiction, so your concern is to check to see whether headwall flashing was installed in a manner that will keep the water out. Common flange sizes are 4x5 inches. Headwall flashing typically comes bent to degrees. It can be easily flattened for roofs with shallower pitches. Step-Flashing Sidewalls on roofs covered with asphalt shingles should always be flashed using step-flashing. A step-flashing is a short section of flashing that overlaps each shingle in the course below and is overlapped by each shingle in the course above. Counter-Flashing Except where walls are brick, the vertical part of the sidewall flashing should extend up behind the exterior wall-covering, just like with headwalls. Page 35 of 36 Although you may sometimes see counter-flashing installed, it s more common that the exterior wall covering acts as the counter-flashing. The exception is brick. Sidewall Defects If you see continuous, one-piece flashing used as sidewall flashing with shingles, it s a defective installation. You ll see it fairly often because it s a common defect. It s easier to see in some situations than others. Page 36 of 37 You ll see sealant substituted for flashing in many different areas on roofs. Sealant will eventually dry, shrink and crack. Correction is most easily accomplished when the roof is replaced. The new step-flashing will need to have the vertical flange inserted behind the exterior wall covering. This might require cutting the wall siding up a couple of inches above the surface of the new sheathing. Considering the age of this home, it may have been correctly flashed when it was first built, but the original flashing may have failed due to corrosion. Page 37 of 38 You ll often see siding and stucco installed right down on top of the shingles. Without a gap, the exterior wall-covering can wick up moisture from the roof. This can lead to decay, delamination, peeling paint, and other problems. This condition is especially common on roofs with multiple layers of shingles. Sometimes, the exterior wall-covering material serves as the counter-flashing, and sometimes a separate counter-flashing may be installed. Counter-flashing is especially important where walls are brick or stone. Counter-Flashing at Brick Walls Headwall and sidewall flashing installation becomes more time-consuming to do correctly when the exterior wall covering is brick. It is also more expensive to do, which is why most of the counter-flashing you ll see at brick walls is poorly installed and relies on a sealant alone to prevent moisture intrusion. Sealant eventually dries, shrinks and cracks, leaving an avenue for moisture intrusion. In brick, counter-flashing sections are inserted into slots cut into the mortar joints, which are then sealed. Counter-Flashing at Stone Walls Counter-flashing is also often poorly installed where sidewalls and headwalls are stone. Where stone veneer is installed over concrete block or framing, the vertical flange of the flashing should extend up behind the stone. Page 39 of 40 Kickout Flashing Where a wall extends past a roof eave, sidewall flashing stops at the edge of the eave, since this is where the sidewall condition ends. At the lower roof edge, sidewall flashing should extend out from the wall at least a couple of inches and be bent to an angle. This is called "kickout" flashing. Except for a few manufacturers, in general are no minimum size requirements. This particular kickout is bigger than most you ll see. Usually, the kickout is cut from a piece of the step-flashing. The purpose of the kickout flashing is to prevent runoff from entering behind the exterior wallcovering where the flashing ends. Kickout flashing is required regardless of the type of roof-covering material or exterior wall covering, with the exception of brick and concrete block, since sidewall flashing doesn t penetrate the wall with those types of coverings. Water cascading down the sidewall joint needs to be diverted to the exterior of the siding when it reaches the edge of the roof. This kickout needs to have a sealant applied to make the kickout waterproof. Page 40 of 41 A kickout is easy to fabricate on site. A piece of step-flashing is cut partially through one flange, and the corner is clipped off. Then, it s bent to shape and installed. This includes areas at which the roof changes from steep to shallow, and has either a concave or a convex shape. Drip-Edge Flashing Drip-edge flashing is flashing installed around the edges of the roof to prevent roof leaks and wood decay of the roof sheathing and fascia. You ll see various flashing profiles used as drip edge. The type of profile you see isn t as important as whether the flashing keeps the water out. Page 42 of 43 Generally, underlayment should overlap the drip edge at the lower eave, and drip edge should overlap the underlayment on rakes the sloped roof edge. You may see different profiles, but what s important is that the drip edge prevents moisture entry. Roof Penetrations The IRC requires flashing at roof penetrations, such as chimneys, vents and skylights. The flashing must be installed correctly and be in good condition. Screeds can be manual or mechanical. In moldings, cutting the end of one piece to fit the molded face of another at an interior angle to replace a miter joint. The stem assembly moves up and down against the seat to open and close the valve. Some waterproof membranes are self-healing. In its uncured state, it spreads out evenly. The side sewer is usually buried in several feet of soil and runs from the house to the sewer line. It is usually owned by the sewer utility but must be maintained by the owner and may be serviced only by utility-approved contractors. Also called a side sewer. Also called gypsum board. Shelf life and the necessary storage conditions are typically printed on the product package. Shore A hardness: A measure of firmness of a compound using a durometer hardness gauge. Our employees have been chosen based on their ability and level of competence, as well as their personal qualities and values. Our pride and personal involvement in the work we perform result in superior quality and service. This attitude is also directly reflected in our employees level of responsibility, professionalism and competency. Basically, a mission statement should state: 1. Dont let a blank screen or piece of paper intimidate you; it doesnt have to be Shakespeare, but writing down the answers for these points is a great exercise for crystallizing why youre doing what youre doing and how youre doing it. It also may help you decide whether you need to change any of it. Your mission statement should guide your companys actions and move you forward every day. Once youve got these points written down on paper, consider hanging it on your wall so that you can see it every day. If youre not happy with it, hang it up anyway and tweak it as you go. A good mission statement isnt just an excellent marketing component; it helps clarify for you and your employees, if you have any exactly what your goals are each and every day. Its easy to lose sight of why you became an inspector when youre booked solid and rushing from one appointment to the next. Sometimes, providing excellent customer service may be done more from memory than passion. How to Run a Successful Home Inspection Business 16 Building Your Business Identity Ask yourself exactly what you do to help improve your business on a regular basis, and write those things down. Do you take special training and Continuing Education courses? Do you belong to the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors and attend chapter meetings and special events? An important element in defining your professional identitywhich is reflected by your mission statementis belonging to a supportive association and being in regular contact with your fellow members. Attending industry events will help you stay current with: changes in codes and standards; new developments in inspection products and practices; safety training; and innovative marketing and business success tips. By exchanging your experiences and ideas with other inspectors through online forums and at industry events, youll expand your own pool of ideas, as well as learn from the mistakes of others. Aside from peer input, do you get customer feedback that tells you whether youre on the right trackthe one that youve set for yourself? Your mission statement is what you tell the world you are, but its also important to find out whether the world agrees with you! Your Mission Statement and Mission Refined Once youve finalized your mission statement, display it in a prominent place where you and your staff can see it every day, such as on your office wall or in a common area. Once youre satisfied with your mission statement, have it added to your brochure. Putting that into words can make a confident and powerful statement that guides your company on a trajectory of success. If youre waiting for a freak time in the free market to go into business, when the demand for your product or service is much greater than your would-be competitors ability to supply that demand, you probably shouldnt go into business. This is a real benefit when construction sequencing requires a delay between installing the felt and the roof covering. Lays Flatter on the Roof Decking When asphalt saturated felt is being installed, it often wrinkles because the paper is affected by moisture in the air. For shingle roofing installations, this is a significant cosmetic issue as the wrinkles telegraph through the shingles. To combat this; current practice with shingled roofing is to install the shingles immediately following the felt to protect the felt from wrinkling. On larger roofs, only a few courses of felt is able to be installed at a time using asphalt saturated felt. Once a few courses have been installed, the roofer proceeds to install shingles before the felt has a chance to wrinkle. This approach leaves areas of the roof vulnerable to water intrusion if a sudden storm were to occur. Unfortunately, asphalt shingle roofs are most common in regions where such weather conditions are prominent. Synthetic underlayments are not affected by moisture like traditional felts and do not wrinkle. More Environmentally Friendly The green building trend will likely spell the demise of traditional roofing felt at least in many markets. The Bottom Line No final conclusion can be made regarding synthetic underlayments with the data that has been collected thus far. However, it is evident that the product retains positive long-term performance characteristics and that it is being used more commonly in construction. We have noted that in synthetic underlayments resist tears and wrinkles, avoid moisture damage, and are UV resistant for a longer period of time than traditional felt underlayments.
Three-Tab Shingles This is a three-tab or 3-tab shingle. It s a essay of strip sample. Its florida identifying feature is two notches, called cutouts, which separate the lower part of the shingle into three tabs, as you can see about. A three-tab shingle is a roof layer thick, usually 12 inches material and 36 inches long.
Metric shingles are a little larger but are less common in the U.
Three-tab shingles typically have warranties in the to year range, weigh to pounds per square, and are designed to survive winds of up to 60 miles per hour. Both writing commentary in an informative essay and 3-tab shingles are material to be strip shingles.
Page 9 of 10 Laminated shingles consist of two or more shingle layers bonded together.