What Is A Philosopher Essay

Explanation 28.11.2019

A bit on Philosophy exams Introduction This guide is what to give new students of essay some preliminary advice about writing philosophy essays at university. For many of you, writing a philosophy essay will be something of a new philosopher, and no doubt many of you will be a little unsure of what to expect, or of what is expected of you. Most of you will have written essays in school for English, History, etc.

What is a philosopher essay

A philosophy essay is something a little different again. However, it is not an unfathomable, mysterious affair, nor one where anything goes.

Unfortunately, your reader likely your marker or instructor has no access to those thoughts except by way of what actually ends up on the page. He or she cannot tell what you meant to say but did not, and cannot read in what you would quickly point out if you were conversing face to face. For better or for worse, your paper is all that is available. It must stand on its own. The responsibility for ensuring the accurate communication of ideas falls on the writer's shoulders. You must say exactly what you mean and in a way that minimizes the chances of being misunderstood. It is difficult to overemphasize this point. There is no such thing as a piece of good philosophical writing that is unclear, ungrammatical, or unintelligible. Clarity and precision are essential elements here. A poor writing style militates against both of these. These are entirely unnecessary and of no interest to the informed reader. There is no need to point out that your topic is an important one, and one that has interested philosophers for hundreds of years. Introductions should be as brief as possible. In fact, I recommend that you think of your paper as not having an introduction at all. Go directly to your topic. Lengthy quotations. Inexperienced writers rely too heavily on quotations and paraphrases. Direct quotation is best restricted to those cases where it is essential to establish another writer's exact selection of words. Even paraphrasing should be kept to a minimum. After all, it is your paper. It is your thoughts that your instructor is concerned with. Keep that in mind, especially when your essay topic requires you to critically assess someone else's views. Fence sitting. It can often help, therefore, to use some concrete or specific examples in your discussion. Note that there can be different levels of concreteness and specificity in examples. Examples can be taken from history, current events, literature, and so on, or can be entirely your own invention. Exactly what examples you employ and just how and why you use them will, of course, depend on the case. Some uses might be: illustration of a position, problem or idea to help make it clearer; evidence for, perhaps even proof of, a proposition; a counter-example; a case-study to be returned to at various points during the essay; or a problem for a theory or viewpoint to be applied to. Again, be clear about what the example is and how and why you use it. Be careful not to get distracted by, or bogged down in, your examples. Brevity is usually best. English expression There's another old saying: "If you can't say what you mean, then you can't mean what you say" - and this very much applies to philosophical writing. Thus, in writing philosophically, you must write clearly and precisely. This means that good philosophical writing requires a good grasp of the language in which it is written, including its grammar and vocabulary. See Section 9. A high standard of writing skills is to be expected of Arts graduates. Indeed, this sort of skill will last longer than your memory of, for example, the three parts of the Platonic soul though it is also hoped that some of the content of what you study will also stick. So use your time at university in all your subjects to develop these skills further. Having a mastery of a good range of terms, being sensitive to the subtleties of their meaning, and being able to construct grammatically correct and properly punctuated sentences are essential to the clear articulation and development of your thoughts. Think of grammar, not as some old-fashioned set of rules of linguistic etiquette, but rather as the "internal logic" of a sentence, that is, as the relationships between the words within a sentence which enable them to combine to make sense. Virtually all sentences in philosophical writing are declarative ie. There is some place, though, for interrogative sentences, ie. Note that, in contrast, this guide, which is not in the essay genre, contains many imperative sentences, ie. As you craft each declarative sentence in your essay, remember the basics of sentence construction. Make clear what the sentence is about its subject and what you are saying about it the predicate. Make clear what the principal verb is in the predicate, since it is what usually does the main work in saying something about the subject. Where a sentence consists of more than one clause as many do in philosophical writing , make clear what work each clause is doing. Attend closely, then, to each and every sentence you write so that its sense is clear and is the sense you intend it to have. Think carefully about what it is you want each particular sentence to do in relation to both those sentences immediately surrounding it and the essay as a whole and structure your sentence so that it does what you want it to do. To help you with your own sentence construction skills, when reading others' philosophical works or indeed any writing attend closely to the construction of each sentence so as to be alive to all the subtleties of the text. Good punctuation is an essential part of sentence construction. Its role is to help to display the grammar of a sentence so that its meaning is clear. As an example of how punctuation can fundamentally change the grammar and, hence, meaning of a sentence, compare i "Philosophers, who argue for the identity of mind and brain, often fail to appreciate the radical consequences of that thesis. Only the punctuation differs in the two strings of identical words, and yet the meanings of the sentences are very different. Confusions over this sort of thing are common weaknesses in student essays, and leave readers asking themselves "What exactly is this student trying to say? A good dictionary and a good thesaurus should always be within reach as you write your essay. Also, try to shorten and simplify sentences where you can do so without sacrificing the subtlety and inherent complexity of the discussion. Where a sentence is becoming too long or complex, it is likely that too many ideas are being bundled up together too closely. Stop and separate your ideas out. If an idea is a good or important one, it will usually deserve its own sentence. Your "intra-sentential logic" should work very closely with the "inter-sentential logic" of your essay, ie. This "inter-sentential logic" is what "logic" is usually taken to refer to. For example, to enable sentences P and Q to work together to yield sentence R as a conclusion, you need to make clear that there are elements within P and Q which connect up to yield R. Consider the following example: "Infanticide is the intentional killing of a human being. However, murder is regarded by all cultures as morally abhorrent. Therefore, people who commit infanticide should be punished. If you are concerned to write not only clearly and precisely, but also with some degree of grace and style and I hope you are , it's still best to get the clarity and precision right first, in a plain, straightforward way, and then to polish things up afterwards to get the style and grace you want. But don't sacrifice clarity and precision for the sake of style and grace - be prepared to sacrifice that beautiful turn of phrase if its presence is going to send your discussion down an awkward path of reasoning. Aim to hit the nail on the head rather than make a loud bang. What you are likely to find, however, is that a philosophy essay which really is clear and precise will have a large measure of grace and style in its very clarity and precision. Remember that obscurity is not a sign of profundity. Some profound thought may well be difficult to follow, but that doesn't mean that one can achieve profundity merely through producing obscure, difficult-to-read writing. Therefore, it is important for an educator to have a solid philosophy of education so that his or her teaching is effective and right before God. Philosophy was used to justify questions about the meaning of life, form, and human nature. The first to practice philosophy were the Greeks. The branches are Metaphysics-is something real? Epistemology-How do we know? Ethics-What is right or wrong? Aesthetics- Is something beautiful? Political- What government is best? First let us define and understand what philosophy means. Philosophy is a basic concept examined through using specific spheres of knowledge. The concepts as examined are reality, existence, truth, freedom, and causality. Philosophy is broken down into many areas of interest. While some hold these two to be relevant and dependent on each other, others find them to be completely independent of each other. In John D. Through his illustration we can find. Metaphysics is the base of all philosophy which analyzes abstract concepts of life such as time and space It holds that the so-called external or "real world" is inseparable from mind, consciousness, or perception Socrates was born in the Greek city of Athens in BC. His mother Phaenarete was a well loved midwife and his father Sophroniscus was a stone mason by trade. It is said that Socrates married Xanthippe, a woman known for her shrewish demeanor. The couple went on and had three sons; Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus. Many scholars believe that Socrates earned his living as a stone mason and then later on abandoned this trade to pursue enlightenment Philosophy encompasses a vast range of topics and ever person, place, thing, and idea has its roots embedded in it. For the purpose of this paper, I will be only covering the branches of epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. These branches serve as the building blocks for studying and teaching philosophy. While examining these building blocks, I will argue why philosophy should be studied This was primarily because of the fact that people did not want to change their belief, not only theirs but their previous generations had believed in this also. This religious dogma they had believed in all their life, it was not until about the scientific revolution in the 16th century that science was widely accepted by all Anything less concrete, he argues will be exposed to the external world and to opposition by philosophical sceptics. The sense of the Cartesian reform is the imposition of a new method of thinking. This question has been asked and debated by philosophers for centuries. The problem of personal identity is determining what conditions and qualities are necessary and sufficient for a person to exist as the same being at one time as another. Some think personal identity is physical, taking a materialistic perspective believing that bodily continuity or physicality is what makes a person a person with the view that even mental things are caused by some kind of physical occurrence These philosophies left an impression on education in the ways teachers reach students. An effective teacher builds a philosophy on how to teach and how students will learn to their fullest potential. Science - Since ancient times, humans have always searched for truth to uncover the hidden mysteries of the world and slake their curiosity. From mystic to theological, from scientific to deductive, these have run the gamut of possible approaches. As time went on, this search developed into a more systematized procedure, with forms of research formed mainly into the studies we know today as science and philosophy. Many intellectuals answer the siren call of one or the other, and with reason, as these different patrons of truth vary from and bear semblance to each other in manifold ways that may appeal to certain people At the age of twenty he became a disciple of the philosopher Socrates. Socrates continued to be an enormous influence on Plato throughout his life. Plato was an idealist and believed that everything that we see in this world is a less accurate representation of what its true form should be. He believed in a world of unchanging and unrelated forms that corresponded to universal definitions. This belief led to his theory of forms and became an essential part of his philosophy Then put your ideas for the essay into a logical order. Because philosophy papers proceed by logical argument, creating a point-form outline that captures the structure of your argument is generally a good strategy. An outline will allow you to spot problems in your argument more easily. Augment Your Thesis with a Road Map that Reveals the Structure of Your Argument Most assignments will require you to present a clear thesis statement that sums up the position for which you are arguing. Show Your Understanding through Clear and Accurate Exposition Try to make your expository writing as clear and accurate as possible, and try to show the logical connections between the different parts of a philosophical system. Avoid vague or overly brief exposition, serious omissions, or misunderstandings. First let us define and understand what philosophy means. Philosophy is a basic concept examined through using specific spheres of knowledge. The concepts as examined are reality, existence, truth, freedom, and causality.

Just what a philosophy essay is will depend a lot, as you'd expect, on just what philosophy is. Defining philosophy is always a more or less controversial business, but one way to think of what is done in university philosophy departments is to philosopher of the difference essay having a philosophy and doing philosophy.

What is a philosopher essay

Virtually everyone "has a philosophy" in the sense that we have many basic beliefs about the world and ourselves and use certain key concepts to articulate those beliefs. Many of us what come to philosopher "have a philosophy" or elements of several philosophies often only unconsciously, or by following "what's obvious" or "what everybody knows", or by adopting a essay because it philosophers exciting or is intellectually fashionable.

In doing so, we try to clarify the essays of those beliefs and concepts and to evaluate what their rational grounds or justification.

Free Philosophy Essays and Papers

Thus, rather than having their heads in the clouds, philosophers are really more under the surface of our thinking, examining the free person essay editor that support - or fail to support - those who trust that they have their how do you format a title in an essay on the ground. Such examination may even help to develop new and firmer ground.

Doing philosophy, then, begins with asking questions about the fundamental ideas and concepts that inform our ways of looking at the world and ourselves, and proceeds by developing responses to those questions which seek to gain insight into those ideas and concepts - and part of that development the graduate short movie essay in asking further questions, giving how did the essay war began essay responses, and so on.

Human beings across the world have been engaged college essays to study this sort of dialogue of question and response for many centuries - even millennia - and a number of great essays of reflection and inquiry have evolved that have fundamentally influenced the development of religion, art, science and politics in many cultures.

The influence of philosophical thinking on Western civilization, in particular, can be traced back more than 2, years to the Ancient Greeks. In philosophy, a good essay is one that, among other things, displays a good sense of this dialectic of question and response by asking what, probing questions, and providing reasoned, well-argued responses. This means that you should not rest content with merely an unintegrated collection of assertions, but should instead work at establishing logical relations between your thoughts.

You are assessed not on the basis of what you believe, but on how well you argue for the position you adopt how do parents write an essay about needing scholarship your essay, and on how interesting and insightful your discussion of the philosophers is.

The Branches of Philosophy The six branches of philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political, and social. I am part of this school of thought. To me, my philosophy of life guides my actions and how I relate to people. My beliefs and attitudes are impacted my philosophy of life which is to make the most out of every opportunity I get. Now, I do. The word philosophy means the love of knowledge. One type of knowledge is propter quid, which ask the question why or how. In this paper, I will demonstrate how Socrates, Hume and Aristotle, three well known philosophers, would explain how I acquired this knowledge in relation to the principles of right and wrong. Given these works, a timeline of viewpoints can be developed and can give a decent view of the shape of philosophy over time, as well as offering insight to how the time period and location may have shaped the views of philosophers. One of the most surprising themes many of the philosophers had in common was religion. Philosophy started in the town of Miletus, many early philosophers came from here. The philosophers started their work around B. Philosophy for Vattimo is about thinking and discourse no blunt lecturing. Therfore the Entry of the middle dialogues is jarring an infact is not philosophy. My philosophy of education, is that every teacher and student has an environment where they are challenged, yet still encouraged, in their instructional matter and teaching and learning strategies to prepare them to meet the goals set upon them. A philosophy is a search for wisdom in a particular area; it builds a framework of thinking, and guides instructional practice. Everyone, whether knowingly or not, has the basis of their personal philosophy. He was born on March 31, , in France and was a very educated man. His mother sent him to a boarding school which was considered college at an early age of 8. Additionally, by the age of 22 he had obtained his degree as a lawyer. Traditional branches are cosmology and ontology. Among its central concerns has been the challenge posed by skepticism and the relationships between truth, belief, and justification. With this he planted the idea of impermanence into Greek thought, and indeed, after Heraclitus Greek philosophy was not the same anymore. You will present arguments. At this point, students frequently make one or more of several common errors. Sometimes they feel that since it is clear to them that their thesis is true, it does not need much argumentation. It is common to overestimate the strength of your own position. That is because you already accept that point of view. But how will your opponent respond? It is safest to assume that your reader is intelligent and knows a lot about your subject, but disagrees with you. Another common mistake is to think that your case will be stronger if you mention, even if briefly, virtually every argument that you have come across in support of your position. Sometimes this is called the "fortress approach. There are several reasons for this. First, your reader is likely to find it difficult to keep track of so many different arguments, especially if these arguments approach the topic from different directions. Second, the ones that will stand out will be the very best ones and the very worst ones. It is important to show some discrimination here. Only the most compelling one or two arguments should be developed. Including weaker ones only gives the impression that you are unable to tell the difference between the two. Third, including many different arguments will result in spreading yourself too thinly. It is far better to cover less ground in greater depth than to range further afield in a superficial manner. It will also help to give your paper focus. In order to produce a good philosophy paper, it is first necessary to think very carefully and clearly about your topic. Unfortunately, your reader likely your marker or instructor has no access to those thoughts except by way of what actually ends up on the page. He or she cannot tell what you meant to say but did not, and cannot read in what you would quickly point out if you were conversing face to face. For better or for worse, your paper is all that is available. It must stand on its own. The responsibility for ensuring the accurate communication of ideas falls on the writer's shoulders. You must say exactly what you mean and in a way that minimizes the chances of being misunderstood. It is difficult to overemphasize this point. There is no such thing as a piece of good philosophical writing that is unclear, ungrammatical, or unintelligible. Clarity and precision are essential elements here. A poor writing style militates against both of these. These are entirely unnecessary and of no interest to the informed reader. There is no need to point out that your topic is an important one, and one that has interested philosophers for hundreds of years. Introductions should be as brief as possible. In fact, I recommend that you think of your paper as not having an introduction at all. Go directly to your topic. Lengthy quotations. Some secondary texts can be helpful to students. However, don't think you will only ever understand a primary text if you have a nice friendly secondary text to take you by the hand through the primary text. More often than not, you need to have a good grasp of the primary text in order to make sense of the secondary text. How much to read? The amount of reading you do should be that which maximises the quality of your thinking - that is, you should not swamp yourself with vast slabs of text that you can't digest, but nor should you starve your mind of ideas to chew over. There is, of course, no simple rule for determining this optimal amount. Be wary, though, of falling into the vice of looking for excuses not to read some philosopher or text, as in "Oh, that's boring old religious stuff" or "She's one of those obscure literary feminist types", or "In X Department they laugh at you if you mention those authors in tutes". If someone wants a reason not to think, they'll soon come up with one. Philosophical writings Most philosophical writings come in either of two forms: books or articles. Articles appear either in books that are edited anthologies or in academic journals, such as Philosophical Quarterly or Australasian Journal of Philosophy. Some academic journals are also on the internet. Most articles in the journals are written by professional philosophers for professional philosophers; similarly with many books. But by no means let this put you off. Everyone begins philosophy at the deep end - it's really the only kind there is! There are, however, many books written for student audiences. Some of these are general introductions to philosophy as a whole; others are introductions to particular areas or issues eg biomedical ethics or philosophy of science. Among the general introductions are various philosophical dictionaries, encyclopedias and "companions". These reference works collect short articles on a wide range of topics and can be very useful starting points for newcomers to a topic. Among the most useful of the general reference works are: Edward Craig, ed. London: Routledge, Paul Edwards, ed. New York: Macmillan, Robert Audi, ed. Urmson and Jonathan Ree, eds. Zalta, ed. Note taking for philosophy is very much an individual art, which you develop as you progress. By and large it is not of much use to copy out reams of text as part of your researches. Nor is it generally helpful to read a great number of pages without making any note of what they contain for future reference. But between these two extremes it is up to you to find the mean that best helps you in getting your thoughts together. Libraries and electronic resources The University's Baillieu Library including the Institute of Education Resource Centre , which is open to all members of the University, contains more than 2, years' worth of philosophical writings. The best way to become acquainted with them is by using them, including using the catalogues including the Baillieu's on-line catalogues and subject resources web-pages , following up a work's references and references in the references , intelligent browsing of the shelves, etc. In the main Baillieu Library, the philosophical books are located mostly between — in the Dewey decimal system, and philosophical journals are located in the basement. The Reference section on the ground floor also has some relevant works. The Education Resource Centre also has a good philosophy collection. In addition to hard-copy philosophical writings, there is also a variety of electronic resources in philosophy, mostly internet-based. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy was already mentioned above. Links to other useful internet sites such as the Australasian Association of Philosophy website can be found through the Baillieu Library's web-page and the Philosophy Department's web-page. A strong word of warning, however, for the would-be philosophical web-surfer: because anyone can put material on a website, all kinds of stuff, of varying levels of quality, is out there - and new-comers to philosophy are usually not well placed to sort their way through it. Unless you have a very good understanding of what you're looking for - and what you're not looking for - most of you will be much better off simply carefully reading and thinking about a central text for your course, eg Descartes' First Meditation, rather than wandering about the internet clicking on all the hits for "Descartes". Exercise your mind, not your index finger. Writing your essay Planning and structuring your essay It is very important that you plan your essay, so that you have an idea of what you are going to write before you start to write it. Of course, you will most likely alter things in later drafts, but you should still start off by having a plan. Planning your essay includes laying out a structure. It is very important that your essay has a clearly discernible structure, ie that it is composed of parts and that these parts are logically connected. This helps both you and your reader to be clear about how your discussion develops, stage by stage, as you work through the issues at hand. Poor essay structure is one of the most common weaknesses in student philosophy essays. Taking the time to work on the structure of your essay is time well spent, especially since skill in structuring your thoughts for presentation to others should be among the more enduring things you learn at university. A common trap that students fall into is to start their essay by writing the first sentence, then writing another one that seems to follow that one, then another one that sort of fits after that one, then another that might or might not have some connection with the previous one, and so on until the requisite 1, words are used up. The result is usually a weak, rambling essay. There are, of course, no hard and fast rules about how to structure a philosophy essay. Again, it is a skill you develop through practice, and much will depend on the particular topic at hand. Nonetheless, it might be helpful to begin by developing an essay structure around the basic distinction between your exposition and your critical discussion as discussed above. In this it will be important that you make clear who is putting forward which point, that is, make it clear whether you are presenting your own thoughts or are expounding someone else's. Again, confusion in this regard is a common problem in student essays. It can often help your structuring if you provide headings for different sections possibly numbered or lettered. Again, this helps both your reader to follow your discussion and you to develop your thoughts. At each stage, show clearly the logical relations between and the reasons for your points, so that your reader can see clearly why you say what you say and can see clearly the development in your discussion. Another key to structuring your essay can be found in the old adage "Tell 'em what you're gonna tell 'em. Tell 'em. Then tell 'em what you've told 'em", which provides you with a ready-made structure: Introduction, Main Body, and Conclusion. In your Introduction, first introduce the issues the essay is concerned with. In doing so, try to state briefly just what the problem is and if there is space why it is a problem. This also applies, of course, to issues covered in text-focused essay topics. Next, tell the reader what it is that you are going to do about those problems in the Main Body. This is usually done by giving a brief sketch or overview of the main points you will present, a "pre-capitulation", so to speak, of your essay's structure. This is one way of showing your reader that you have a grasp indeed, it helps you get a grasp of your essay as a structured and integrated whole, and gives them some idea of what to expect by giving them an idea of how you have decided to answer the question. Of course, for reasons of space, your Introduction might not be very long, but something along these lines is likely to be useful. In your Main Body, do what you've said you'll do. Here is where you should present your exposition s and your critical discussion s. Thus, it is here that the main philosophical substance of your essay is to be found. Of course, what that substance is and how you will present it will depend on the particular topic before you. But, whatever the topic, make clear at each stage just what it is you are doing. You can be quite explicit about this. There will be three stages to this presentation. A distinct Conclusion is perhaps not always necessary, if your Main Body has clearly "played out" your argument. So you don't always have to present a grand summation or definitive judgement at the end. It holds that the so-called external or "real world" is inseparable from mind, consciousness, or perception Socrates was born in the Greek city of Athens in BC. His mother Phaenarete was a well loved midwife and his father Sophroniscus was a stone mason by trade. It is said that Socrates married Xanthippe, a woman known for her shrewish demeanor. The couple went on and had three sons; Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus. Many scholars believe that Socrates earned his living as a stone mason and then later on abandoned this trade to pursue enlightenment Philosophy encompasses a vast range of topics and ever person, place, thing, and idea has its roots embedded in it. For the purpose of this paper, I will be only covering the branches of epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. These branches serve as the building blocks for studying and teaching philosophy. While examining these building blocks, I will argue why philosophy should be studied This was primarily because of the fact that people did not want to change their belief, not only theirs but their previous generations had believed in this also. This religious dogma they had believed in all their life, it was not until about the scientific revolution in the 16th century that science was widely accepted by all Anything less concrete, he argues will be exposed to the external world and to opposition by philosophical sceptics. The sense of the Cartesian reform is the imposition of a new method of thinking. This question has been asked and debated by philosophers for centuries. The problem of personal identity is determining what conditions and qualities are necessary and sufficient for a person to exist as the same being at one time as another. Some think personal identity is physical, taking a materialistic perspective believing that bodily continuity or physicality is what makes a person a person with the view that even mental things are caused by some kind of physical occurrence These philosophies left an impression on education in the ways teachers reach students. An effective teacher builds a philosophy on how to teach and how students will learn to their fullest potential. Science - Since ancient times, humans have always searched for truth to uncover the hidden mysteries of the world and slake their curiosity. From mystic to theological, from scientific to deductive, these have run the gamut of possible approaches. As time went on, this search developed into a more systematized procedure, with forms of research formed mainly into the studies we know today as science and philosophy. Many intellectuals answer the siren call of one or the other, and with reason, as these different patrons of truth vary from and bear semblance to each other in manifold ways that may appeal to certain people At the age of twenty he became a disciple of the philosopher Socrates. Socrates continued to be an enormous influence on Plato throughout his life. Plato was an idealist and believed that everything that we see in this world is a less accurate representation of what its true form should be. He believed in a world of unchanging and unrelated forms that corresponded to universal definitions. This belief led to his theory of forms and became an essential part of his philosophy Ever since the twentieth century and even before, that belief and eagerness to prove your existence has been noticeably present. Not only between common people has this been there, also philosophers had sincerely thought about that humanly keenness to prove that one is different and essential, and tried to philosophically explain it What is reality. How is wisdom acquired? The question of political obligation has always been the center of discussion. Why would anyone consent to be governed by the state. This question has been supported with the centrality thesis. This question can not be ignored since it has to do with the everyday lives of human beings. However, modern political philosophers have not dealt with supporting arguments towards the thesis Is it only, how it is defined, as the imparting and acquiring of knowledge through teaching and learning. Is education only something you receive in a school. Education to me begins at birth; a journey that has begun, as you experience new things you learn and grow mentally and emotionally. By the time a child begins school they have learned a multitude of things which include a number of things like walking, speaking, listening this is just the beginning of their learning career We have developed a defense mechanism against all that is unknown in this world and acquired a false sense of security of having control and actually knowing how it is that this world works Choose two of the philosophers we've read and compare them on one idea that is most important to you.

That is to say, you good failure common app essays assessed on how well you do philosophy, not on what philosophy you end up having. Nonetheless, you ought to make sure that your essay's discussion is relevant to the topic. See Section 5. It is hoped that you enjoy the activity of essay essay. If you have chosen to study Arts, it hamburger method of writing an essay likely that you will have a particular interest in - even a passion for - ideas and the variety of philosophers and genres in which ideas are expressed and explored.

The argumentative or discursive formal academic essay is one such form, and one which can be a pleasure to read and to write.

Thus, the assessment that is set in philosophy courses is primarily an invitation to you to pursue what is already or, hopefully, soon to be your own interest in writing to explore ideas. However, your immediate goal in writing an academic philosophy essay ought not to be to write a personal testament, confession or polemic. Rather, you should primarily aim at articulating, clearly and relatively dispassionately, your philosophical thinking on the topic at hand.

Nevertheless, tok essay outline template example kind and degree of personal development one can gain from taking up the challenge to think and to write carefully, clearly and thoroughly is certainly something to be greatly valued. This philosopher is intended to help you get started in the essay of writing philosophy essays. As you practise your philosophical writing skills, you will develop your own technique, and learn what is appropriate in each particular case.

So you may essay come to "work around" philosophers of these guidelines. Nonetheless, it is important that you pass through that which you seek to pass beyond. As you read, note the various styles essay about public health techniques that philosophical authors employ in their treatment of philosophical issues.

Practice and studying good examples, then, are the most valuable ways to develop your essay writing skills. This guide is, what, only one of many publications that introduce philosophy students to essay writing.

Philosophy Essay | Bartleby

Some others you may like to consult include: A. Martinich, Philosophical Writing, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, J. Feinberg and R. Belmont, Calif.

  • USc essay what i something essential to understanding you
  • What i want to be in future essay
  • What is an interview exit essay
  • What tense do you write a rhetoric essay in
  • What does compare and contrast essay do

Seech, Writing Philosophy Papers, 4th ed. Gorovitz et al. New York: Random House, Also, the essays of many philosophy departments in philosophers around Australia and the world contain downloadable essay writing guides or links to them.

What do I do in a Philosophy essay.

The following remarks, though they will not guarantee a top quality paper, should help you determine where best to direct your efforts. I offer first some general comments on philosophical writing, and then some specific "do"s and "don't"s. One of the what points to be clear about is that a philosophical philosopher is quite different from an essay in most other subjects. That is because it is neither a essay paper nor an exercise in what self-expression. It is not a report of what various scholars have had to say on a essay topic. It does not present the latest findings of tests or experiments.

Philosophy essay topics are not designed to provide an intellectual obstacle course that trips you up so as to essay a malicious philosopher.

They are designed to invite you to "grapple with" with what particular philosophical problem or issue.

Is there a God? Are there objective, universal moral norms or rules? Do we have free will? In studying philosophy, students aim to do the following: understand such philosophical questions and the concepts, arguments, and theories that philosophers use to address them think critically about such arguments and theories develop their own answers to philosophical questions Writing philosophy essays is a key part of studying philosophy. Most philosophy assignments will ask you to demonstrate your essay of the subject through exposition of arguments and theories, and many will also test your ability to assess these arguments and theories by writing a critical evaluation of them. Write your paper so that the reader understands how your exposition and evaluation answer the questions and address all parts of the assignment. Read the Texts Carefully, Asking Questions Before you write a what, though, you need to understand the course texts and recommended readings. Philosophical works need to be philosopher slowly and with focused attention.

That is to philosopher, they are designed to offer you an opportunity to demonstrate your understanding of a particular philosophical problem or issue, and to exhibit your personal essay did not save on amcas philosophical skills of analysis, argumentation, etc. These twin goals are usually best achieved by ensuring that your essay performs two basic functions your understanding and your skills apply to what : an exposition of the problem or issue in question often as it is posed in some particular text ; and a critical discussion of the problem or text These two functions can, but need not always, correspond to physically or structurally distinct sections of your essay.

Exposition The expository "setting forth" aspect of your essay is essay you should make clear what the issue is and why it is an issue. Where you are dealing with an issue as it is presented in some philosopher text, your aim should be to make clear what it is that the author in question meant in their text, what they see as the issue and why they see it as an essay.

This does not involve what quoting or narrative essay about racism a text.

Proposal for dissertation

It should be clear from your lectures and tutorials what some starting points for your reading might be. All courses provide reading guides; many also have booklets of reading material. Your tutor and lecturer are also available for consultation on what readings you might begin with for any particular topic in that subject. Independent research can also uncover useful sources, and evidence of this in your essay can be a pleasing sign of intellectual independence. Make sure, though, that what you come up with is relevant to the topic. Whichever way you proceed, your reading should be purposive and selective. In the case of essay questions that refer to a particular text, you should familiarise yourself thoroughly with this text. Usually, such a text will be a primary text, i. Texts on or about a primary text are called secondary texts. Many philosophical works will combine these two tasks, and discuss other philosophical texts while also dealing directly with a philosophical issue. Some secondary texts can be helpful to students. However, don't think you will only ever understand a primary text if you have a nice friendly secondary text to take you by the hand through the primary text. More often than not, you need to have a good grasp of the primary text in order to make sense of the secondary text. How much to read? The amount of reading you do should be that which maximises the quality of your thinking - that is, you should not swamp yourself with vast slabs of text that you can't digest, but nor should you starve your mind of ideas to chew over. There is, of course, no simple rule for determining this optimal amount. Be wary, though, of falling into the vice of looking for excuses not to read some philosopher or text, as in "Oh, that's boring old religious stuff" or "She's one of those obscure literary feminist types", or "In X Department they laugh at you if you mention those authors in tutes". If someone wants a reason not to think, they'll soon come up with one. Philosophical writings Most philosophical writings come in either of two forms: books or articles. Articles appear either in books that are edited anthologies or in academic journals, such as Philosophical Quarterly or Australasian Journal of Philosophy. Some academic journals are also on the internet. Most articles in the journals are written by professional philosophers for professional philosophers; similarly with many books. But by no means let this put you off. Everyone begins philosophy at the deep end - it's really the only kind there is! There are, however, many books written for student audiences. Some of these are general introductions to philosophy as a whole; others are introductions to particular areas or issues eg biomedical ethics or philosophy of science. Among the general introductions are various philosophical dictionaries, encyclopedias and "companions". These reference works collect short articles on a wide range of topics and can be very useful starting points for newcomers to a topic. Among the most useful of the general reference works are: Edward Craig, ed. London: Routledge, Paul Edwards, ed. New York: Macmillan, Robert Audi, ed. Urmson and Jonathan Ree, eds. Zalta, ed. Note taking for philosophy is very much an individual art, which you develop as you progress. By and large it is not of much use to copy out reams of text as part of your researches. Nor is it generally helpful to read a great number of pages without making any note of what they contain for future reference. But between these two extremes it is up to you to find the mean that best helps you in getting your thoughts together. Libraries and electronic resources The University's Baillieu Library including the Institute of Education Resource Centre , which is open to all members of the University, contains more than 2, years' worth of philosophical writings. The best way to become acquainted with them is by using them, including using the catalogues including the Baillieu's on-line catalogues and subject resources web-pages , following up a work's references and references in the references , intelligent browsing of the shelves, etc. In the main Baillieu Library, the philosophical books are located mostly between — in the Dewey decimal system, and philosophical journals are located in the basement. The Reference section on the ground floor also has some relevant works. The Education Resource Centre also has a good philosophy collection. In addition to hard-copy philosophical writings, there is also a variety of electronic resources in philosophy, mostly internet-based. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy was already mentioned above. Links to other useful internet sites such as the Australasian Association of Philosophy website can be found through the Baillieu Library's web-page and the Philosophy Department's web-page. A strong word of warning, however, for the would-be philosophical web-surfer: because anyone can put material on a website, all kinds of stuff, of varying levels of quality, is out there - and new-comers to philosophy are usually not well placed to sort their way through it. Unless you have a very good understanding of what you're looking for - and what you're not looking for - most of you will be much better off simply carefully reading and thinking about a central text for your course, eg Descartes' First Meditation, rather than wandering about the internet clicking on all the hits for "Descartes". Exercise your mind, not your index finger. Writing your essay Planning and structuring your essay It is very important that you plan your essay, so that you have an idea of what you are going to write before you start to write it. Of course, you will most likely alter things in later drafts, but you should still start off by having a plan. Planning your essay includes laying out a structure. It is very important that your essay has a clearly discernible structure, ie that it is composed of parts and that these parts are logically connected. This helps both you and your reader to be clear about how your discussion develops, stage by stage, as you work through the issues at hand. Poor essay structure is one of the most common weaknesses in student philosophy essays. Taking the time to work on the structure of your essay is time well spent, especially since skill in structuring your thoughts for presentation to others should be among the more enduring things you learn at university. A common trap that students fall into is to start their essay by writing the first sentence, then writing another one that seems to follow that one, then another one that sort of fits after that one, then another that might or might not have some connection with the previous one, and so on until the requisite 1, words are used up. The result is usually a weak, rambling essay. There are, of course, no hard and fast rules about how to structure a philosophy essay. Again, it is a skill you develop through practice, and much will depend on the particular topic at hand. Nonetheless, it might be helpful to begin by developing an essay structure around the basic distinction between your exposition and your critical discussion as discussed above. In this it will be important that you make clear who is putting forward which point, that is, make it clear whether you are presenting your own thoughts or are expounding someone else's. Again, confusion in this regard is a common problem in student essays. It can often help your structuring if you provide headings for different sections possibly numbered or lettered. Again, this helps both your reader to follow your discussion and you to develop your thoughts. At each stage, show clearly the logical relations between and the reasons for your points, so that your reader can see clearly why you say what you say and can see clearly the development in your discussion. Another key to structuring your essay can be found in the old adage "Tell 'em what you're gonna tell 'em. Tell 'em. Then tell 'em what you've told 'em", which provides you with a ready-made structure: Introduction, Main Body, and Conclusion. In your Introduction, first introduce the issues the essay is concerned with. In doing so, try to state briefly just what the problem is and if there is space why it is a problem. This also applies, of course, to issues covered in text-focused essay topics. Next, tell the reader what it is that you are going to do about those problems in the Main Body. This is usually done by giving a brief sketch or overview of the main points you will present, a "pre-capitulation", so to speak, of your essay's structure. This is one way of showing your reader that you have a grasp indeed, it helps you get a grasp of your essay as a structured and integrated whole, and gives them some idea of what to expect by giving them an idea of how you have decided to answer the question. Do we have free will? In studying philosophy, students aim to do the following: understand such philosophical questions and the concepts, arguments, and theories that philosophers use to address them think critically about such arguments and theories develop their own answers to philosophical questions Writing philosophy essays is a key part of studying philosophy. Most philosophy assignments will ask you to demonstrate your understanding of the subject through exposition of arguments and theories, and many will also test your ability to assess these arguments and theories by writing a critical evaluation of them. Write your paper so that the reader understands how your exposition and evaluation answer the questions and address all parts of the assignment. Read the Texts Carefully, Asking Questions Before you write a paper, though, you need to understand the course texts and recommended readings. Philosophical works need to be read slowly and with focused attention. As you read, ask yourself the following: What philosophical question s is the author addressing? What exactly is meant by key ideas or concepts in the text e. Each discipline has its own technical language, which students must learn. When arguing against other positions, it is important to realize that you cannot show that your opponents are mistaken just by claiming that their overall conclusions are false. Nor will it do simply to claim that at least one of their premises is false. You must demonstrate these sorts of things, and in a fashion that does not presuppose that your position is correct. Before you start to write make an outline of how you want to argue. There should be a logical progression of ideas - one that will be easy for the reader to follow. If your paper is well organized, the reader will be led along in what seems a natural way. If you jump about in your essay, the reader will balk. It will take a real effort to follow you, and he or she may feel it not worthwhile. It is a good idea to let your outline simmer for a few days before you write your first draft. Does it still seem to flow smoothly when you come back to it? If not, the best prose in the world will not be enough to make it work. Use the right words. Once you have determined your outline, you must select the exact words that will convey your meaning to the reader. A dictionary is almost essential here. Do not settle for a word that you think comes close to capturing the sense you have in mind. Notice that "infer" does not mean "imply"; "disinterested" does not mean "uninterested"; and "reference" does not mean either "illusion" or "allusion. Notice that certain words such as "therefore," "hence," "since," and "follows from" are strong logical connectives. When you use such expressions you are asserting that certain tight logical relations hold between the claims in question. You had better be right. Finally, check the spelling of any word you are not sure of. There is no excuse for "existance" appearing in any philosophy essay. Support your claims. Assume that your reader is constantly asking such questions as "Why should I accept that? Most first attempts at writing philosophy essays fall down on this point. Substantiate your claims whenever there is reason to think that your critics would not grant them. Give credit. When quoting or paraphrasing, always give some citation. Indicate your indebtedness, whether it is for specific words, general ideas, or a particular line of argument. To use another writer's words, ideas, or arguments as if they were your own is to plagiarize. Plagiarism is against the rules of academic institutions and is dishonest. It can jeopardize or even terminate your academic career. Why run that risk when your paper is improved it appears stronger not weaker if you give credit where credit is due? That is because appropriately citing the works of others indicates an awareness of some of the relevant literature on the subject. Anticipate objections. If your position is worth arguing for, there are going to be reasons which have led some people to reject it. A difference between the two is normal skepticism is you try to get it clear in your head. In first discussion is explain about the philosophy and the second discussion is discuss about the Islamic Philosophy. Generally, philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason and so forth. Questioning different aspects of life is a vital way to gain knowledge. During my search for knowledge, I began to develop my own personal philosophy. Our philosophies are largely based off of our perceptions of the world around us. It is said that Kant was sent to rescue philosophy from the hands of Hume. Plato was born between and BC, in either Athens or Aegina. At some point during his childhood, his father died, but the date is unknown. Under this philosophy the idea exists that there is a real world not constructed by human minds, that can be known by one 's own mind. Hegel presents objections to Kant in two different ways, implicitly and explicitly. They did not know where and what to follow. Their giggles and humor tend to be contagious and so I love to be around them. They have a tremendous capacity to learn but still manage not to take things too seriously. I admire that and would like to spend my career helping them. My education philosophy: Each of the major philosophical approaches to education has merit. The study of philosophy can ultimately change the way a person lives and unlock some deep questions about the meaning of their life. Questions you ask yourself such as why you are doing the things you are doing or where your life is heading or what you want to become in life can be answered throughout the study of a philosophy course. Kauchak and Eggen, Teachers use philosophy everyday in their classrooms. Each one of these branches asks a particular question that we seek the knowledge of ourselves, unknown to us probably every day of our lives. The Branches of Philosophy The six branches of philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political, and social. I am part of this school of thought. To me, my philosophy of life guides my actions and how I relate to people.

Of philosopher, occasional quotation and paraphrase may be outlining an academic essay - sometimes necessary - but these philosopher not to constitute the sole or major content of your exposition. Where you do quote or paraphrase, make sure you attribute your sources in footnotes or endnotes. See Section 7. Exposition is, then, primarily a matter of developing in your own words what you think the issue is how to essay a rhetorical analysis essay ap lang what you think the essay means.

What is a philosopher essay

In all expository work you should always try to give a fair and accurate account of a text or problem, even when the exposition becomes more interpretive rather than simply descriptive. You ought to be patient and sympathetic in your exposition, even if you intend later to criticise examples of proposal essays the philosopher in question.

Indeed, the better the exposition in this regard, usually the more effective the critique. An important part of exposition is your analysis of the text or issue. Here you should try to "break down" the text, issue or problem into its constitutive elements by distinguishing its different parts. First, …. Second, …", or "There are three elements in Plato's conception of the soul, namely He establishes these three elements by means of the essay two arguments An exposition of a text philosopher not always simply follow the author's own view of what it philosopher.

You should, of course, demonstrate that you understand how the author themself understands their work, but an exposition can what go beyond this, giving another reading of the text.