How Do You Cite A Source In An Essay

Judgment 09.10.2019

How to Cite Sources (with Sample Citations) - wikiHow

how However, for online sources, look for a date the specific you was published rather than using the copyright year of the website as a whole. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. In most cases, you'll provide the author's name and the page number where the material appears, with no citing essay. While the notes are numbered and appear in the order in which the sources appear, the bibliography is alphabetized.

If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it. In nearly all citation styles, the reference entry begins with the last name of the source.

For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt 50, 55, Indirect Sources Sources that are paraphrased or quoted in other sources are called indirect sources. MLA recommends you take information from the original source whenever possible. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U. In-Text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work e. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change. If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's name again and the work if you have referred to more than one by this author to avoid confusion. Quoting Material What is Quoting? Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. How Often Should I Quote? Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. Here are some examples of in-text citations: Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Titles for shorter sources, such as magazine and journal articles, are typically placed in quotes. Book titles are usually italicized. The title is typically followed by a period. If the title appears in quotes, the period comes before the closing quotation marks. Most citation styles require titles in title-case, meaning that all nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adverbs are capitalized. A Brief History of Time. APA style uses sentence-case for titles, capitalizing only the first word and any proper pronouns. A brief history of time. Publication information may include the name of the publisher, the place where the source was published, and except for APA citations the year the source was published. The format for this information varies among the styles of citation. New York: Bantam. For print sources, most styles call for the city and state where the source was published or city and country, for sources published outside the U. In MLA, in-text citations always come at the end of the sentence. The period that would end the sentence comes after the parenthetical citation. Every single source that contains information you used must be included in your Works Cited and cited in-text. The most obvious time to use an in-text citation is when you quote from a source directly or refer to it by title or author. Failing to attribute information that is the product of someone else's work is plagiarism. The repercussions can be severe. For example, it is common knowledge that World War II broke out in Nobody owns that information. But specific strategies, quotes from important figures in the war, and statistics about how many people were involved in the war are all examples of specific, proprietary information. The author of the source you used to research that information had to do the work of finding that information out. You must attribute it to them. But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation. Correct: A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan Correct: Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Incorrect: Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan Plagiarism: A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals. When they look up the source on your Works Cited sheet, they will find two different articles by James Smith. To avoid this confusion, you must include a shortened version of the essay's title, so the readers know which essay to look for. Preventing bullying. Reference entry All things Nittany. Reference entry American Psychological Association. Recovering emotionally from disaster.

Note: The how within the in-text citation do not need to be in alphabetical order for MLA style. A solution was suggested in Pangee, pars. When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph you source your cites at the end.

Smith Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however.

Indirect Sources Sources that are paraphrased or quoted in other sources are called indirect sources. MLA recommends you take information from the original source whenever possible. Proceed the in-text citation with 'qtd. Unknown Author Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your Works Cited list. If the title in the Works Cited list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation. If the title in the Works Cited list is in quotation marks, put quotation marks around the words from the title in the in-text citation. Examples: "Nursing" 12 Repeated Use of Sources If you're using information from a single source more than once in succession i. Note: If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format. In-Text Citation For More Than One Source If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. Examples: Smith 42; Bennett It Takes Two; Brock Note: The sources within the in-text citation do not need to be in alphabetical order for MLA style. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name e. After the period, write the dialog. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source. Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. Pleadingly Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink. Den grab it. It's right under your nose. He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows. Citing non-print or sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation e. Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, Yates, Jane. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. In the first example an online magazine article , the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows: Taylor, Rumsey. Accessed 29 Sep. Accessed 2 April Multiple citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. Time-based media sources When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference.

Place the period ending the sentence after the closing parentheses mark. Just like in MLA, the Chicago Author-Date style inserts a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence, before the period. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again.

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If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.

God, I need a drink. A period follows the name e. Page range. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to.

The first line of each entry is unindented, while all subsequent lines are indented.

How Do I Cite Sources? - grue.me

A "works consulted" page is a complement to a "works cited" page, listing all of the works you used, whether they were useful or not. For some sources, such as magazines and newspapers, you need a more specific date.

In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following: change the source to one noticeably smaller in a document that is mostly 12 essay font, you should use a 10 point font, for example double indent the quotation -- that means adjusting the left and cite margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper if you have this option in your word-processor, "left-justify" the text.

Citing authors with how last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken.

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If you how include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the you has more than one footnote try to avoid this!

Incorrect: Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan source bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan When a essay is not needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources.

Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Correct: It could be argued that Sethe is haunted by "the physical persistence of memory" Smith, "Beloved" We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change.

MLA uses parenthetical citations in the body of your work.

How do you cite a source in an essay

A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page.

How do you cite a source in an essay

For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. Accessed 2 April If not available, add the url.

To direct readers to additional information. To establish credibility as a careful researcher. To show professional honesty and courtesy. In-text references How you cite a working within your document varies depending on your writing style, whether you are quoting your source directly, and the type of source you are quoting. When using APA format, follow the author, date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, e. If you are referring to an idea from another work but not directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. Here are some examples of in-text citations: Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. Quoting Material What is Quoting? Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. How Often Should I Quote? Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words! You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. Year of publication. Title of chapter in sentence case. In First Initial. MiddleInitial EditorsName Eds. Location: Publisher. Year of Publication. Title of article in sentence case. The catch is that there are actually two system of Chicago formatting. The notes-bibliography system: used in the humanities literature, history and the arts. It provides notes at the bottom of the page, and sometimes a full bibliography at the end of the text. The author-date system: used the physical, natural, and social sciences. It provides parenthetical in-text citations that include the author and date of publication, as well as a bibliography. At the end of the sentence that contains the borrowed material, place a number in superscript. Match each source to its information in the text by using the same number, but do not raise it into superscript. The first line of each source is indented, just like a paragraph, but subsequent lines are not. Essay found in a print anthology: 1. For example: 1. Nancy Lyninger London: wikiHow Publishing, , Essay found in print journal: 2. For example: 2. Essay accessed through online database: use the exact same format as that for the print journal, but add the doi digital object identifier if available. If not available, add the url. For example: 3. You can provide only the name and page number, or name, shortened title, and page number. Either way, you include a note pointing the reader to the first note for that source, where they can find full bibliographic information. Reference entry Kraizer, S. Preventing bullying. Reference entry All things Nittany. Reference entry American Psychological Association. Recovering emotionally from disaster. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Typically you will close this portion of the reference entry with a period. For example: Hawking, Stephen. For some citation styles, such as APA style, only include the author's first initial in your reference entry, rather than their full first name. For example: Hawking, S. For most citation styles, the title of the source is the next part of the reference entry. However, for APA, place the year the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. Put a period after the closing parentheses mark. For some sources, such as magazines and newspapers, you need a more specific date. Type the year first, followed by a comma. Then type the month and day the article was published. The way a source title is formatted depends on the citation style you're using as well as the type of media the source is. Titles for shorter sources, such as magazine and journal articles, are typically placed in quotes. Book titles are usually italicized. The title is typically followed by a period. If the title appears in quotes, the period comes before the closing quotation marks. Most citation styles require titles in title-case, meaning that all nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adverbs are capitalized. A Brief History of Time.

Students should read assignment sheets and course syllabi. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work e. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. For example: Stanley Meisner, Maintain double-spacing throughout.

How do you cite a source in an essay

MiddleInitial EditorsName Eds. For most citation styles, the year the source was published you the name of the publisher.

Correct: Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals You should provide enough words to make it clear admission essay writing service work you're referring to from your Works Cited source. As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to essay the quoted material fit in your cite, but it is not how to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content.

He tends to serve himself badly as well.

How to Cite a Direct Quote When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence, you must cite the source. If the quotation will run to more than 4 lines in your paper, you must you a block format in which the quotation is indented 1 inch from the source how, double spaced with no quotation marks. How to Cite after Paraphrasing Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must cite the rsi examples successful essay author or researcher as well as the page or paragraph number s. How to Cite Information When You Have Not Seen the Original Source Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report. In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in the Works Cited essay. One website cites these specific dragons King. A solution was suggested in Pangee, pars. If you must add or slightly change words within a quotation for reasons of grammar or clarity, surround the change with square brackets

How to Cite a Direct Quote When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence, you must cite the source. For example: 3.